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CHAPTER 7: Policy Responses to Demographic Changes

Population Notes

CHAPTER 7:  Policy Responses to Demographic Changes

I. Role of  the United Nation

         A.  Population conferences

               1.   Held every ten years

               2.   First held in 1974 in Bucharest

                     a)   Population explosion was in full force

                     b)   Marred by ideological disputes

                     c)   Chinese felt population control was a capitalist plot to inhibit growth of communist  societies

                     d)   Soviet Union encouraged large families

                     e)   Majority of world's governments agreed on the urgency of overpopulation

               3.   Second conference in 1984 in Mexico City

                     a)   China had reversed its position on population growth

                     b)   The Green Revolution had narrowed the food gap

                     c)   The United States kept a low profile

               4.   The 1994 Cairo conference

                     a)   Religion became a dividing force

                     b)   Catholics were afraid abortion and artificial means of birth control would be endorsed

                     c)   Some Islamic countries asserted population control measures were inconsistent with Muslim precepts

               5.   2004 conference

                     a)   When women have access to education and paid employment birth rates decline

                     b)   Religious fundamentalism can work against the interests of women in society

 II.   National population policies

         A.  Introduction

         B.   Three groups of population policies

               1.   Expansion population policies

                     a)   Encourage large families

                     b)   Use of tax incentives and other fiscal means to encourage more children

                     c)   Used by countries where the population has stopped growing: example of Singapore

               2.   Eugenic population policies

                     a)   Some were designed to favor cultural sector of the population over another

                     b)   Until the time of the Civil Rights movement, some accused the United States of  pursuing social policies tinged with eugenics that worked against interest of African- Americans

                     c)   Japan’s nearly homogeneous culture is sometimes said to result from deliberate  eugenic social policies

                     These policies can be practiced covertly through discriminatory taxation

               3.   Restrictive population policies

                     a)   Toleration of officially unapproved means of birth control

                     b)   Outright prohibition of large families

                     c)   Can have unintended consequences

               4.   Limitations

                     a)   Urbanization and industrialization inhabit population growth more effectively than  restrictive population policies

                     b)   Education of women in male-dominated societies helps more than sex education

                     c)   Restricting immigration of foreign workers does more to age a population

               5.   Contradictions

                     a)   Natural increase is at its lowest in heart of Roman Catholic world

                     b)   Philippines locked in battle between government and church over birth control

                     c)   Saudi Arabia has one of the globe’s fastest growth rates

                     d)   Indonesia’s family-planning came to be regarded as most successful in the Muslim world

   III. Three case studies

         A.  Japan

               1.   During era of expansion having several children was encouraged

               2.   Growing urban centers tended to reduce birth rate

               3.   Growth rate tended to stabilize

               4.   Circumstances changed after World War II

                     a)   Hundreds of thousands of refugees returned from the colonies

                     b)   Soldiers came home to rejoin their families

                     c)   American occupation introduced improved medical services and public health

                     d)   Birth rate increased and death rate dropped

               5.   In 1948 the government started the Eugenic Protection Act

                     a)   Legalized abortions for social, medical, and economic reasons

                     b)   Contraceptives were made available

               6.   Enormous number of abortions brought down the birth rate

               7.   Birth rate was over 34 per 1000 in 1947

               8.   Birth rate fell to 18 per 1000 by 1957

               9.   In 1991 the government increased benefits to parents to encourage larger families

             10.    Japan will not allow foreign workers in any numbers into the country

             11.    Japan will probably turn to technology to replace the loss of young workers

             12.    No measures will probably protect Japan from negative population growth

         B.   India

               1.   Predicted to overtake China as the world's most populous country during the first half of  the twentieth-first century

               2.   Population is now approaching 1 billion

               3.   A culturally complex country (Figure 7-1)

                     a)   Has 25 states

                     b)   Seven so-called union territories

                     c)   Because the states differ both culturally and politically, the will of the federal government cannot be forcibly imposed

               4.   Population planning

                     a)   Began in the 1950s with limited funds

                     b)   Leaders not aware of the dimensions of the population explosion then existing

                     c)   The 1960 census encouraged government to spend more money

                     d)   A national program was instituted

                           (1)  Upward spiral continued, especially in eastern states

                           (2)  Maharashtra State required sterilization of anyone with three children

                           (3)  Forced sterilization caused social problems and led to rioting

                     e)   India uses advertising and persuasion to help control family size

                     f)    Some areas are progressing

         C.   China

               1.   Mao Zedong was against population control

               2.   In 1979 the government launched a policy inducing couples to have only one child

                     a)   Applied loosely at first, which did not work

                     b)   Severely tightened in 1982

                     c)   Dramatic reduction in the growth rate occurred

               3.   Penalties and hardships of the one-child policy

                     a)   If a second child was born, one parent had to be sterilized

                     b)   Farming families had no one to help do the work and defied the authorities

                     c)   The government fired offenders from their jobs

                     d)   Women were arrested and forced to have abortions

               4.   In 1984 China relaxed its one-child policy in rural areas

               5.   Results of party-imposed system breakdown

                     a)   Enforcement weakened

                     b)   Circumvention practices became more effective

                     c)   Peasants with rising incomes could afford to pay fines for unauthorized births

               6.   By year 2000 growth rate was 0.9 percent

               7.   The one-child policy has had a major social impact in a society where sons carry on the family name

                     a)   Female infanticide—hundreds of thousand went unreported

                     b)   Estimated number of surviving male children exceeded females by 300,000 annually

                     b)   In the future males will substantially outnumber females

                     c)   Unpredictable social consequences

               8.   China's policy toward zero population growth tore down the traditions of Chinese society

               9.   Government feels the ends justify the means

             10.    China's experience underscores the depth of the population dilemma

                     a)   Stringent policies could not be enforced over the long term

                     b)   Short-term gains were wiped out over the long term by reverses

    IV. Policies targeting migration

         A.  Control of immigration, legal and illegal a hot issue around the world

               1.   If the federal government cannot control its borders in the U.S., states feel it should foot  the bill

                     a)   California demands federal help to provide services for hundreds of thousand of illegal immigrants

                     b)   Cuban refugees

                     c)   Haitians were prevented from entering Florida

               2.   Restricting migration is nothing new

                     a)   Great Wall in China

                     b)   The Berlin Wall

         B.   Legal restrictions

               1.   In the United States the Oriental Exclusion Acts (1882­1907) were designed to restrict the  immigration of Chinese people to California

               2.   Australia Immigration Restriction Act of 1901 terminated all nonwhite immigration

               3.   In the United States—restrictive legislation affecting Europeans was passed in 1921

               4.   In the United States—the National Origins Law took effect in 1929

                     a)   Sustained the limit of 150,000 immigrants per year

                     b)   Had the effect of preventing the immigration of Asians

               5.   After 1940 U.S. restrictions on immigration were modified

                     a)   China given equal status with European countries

                     b)   Japan given similar status in 1952

               6.   The law was modified in 1952

                     a)   Incorporated all preceding legislation

                     b)   Established quotas for all countries

               7.   Many immigrants enter the United States as refugees

               8.   In 1965, the United States quota system was abolished

               9.   Other countries also have immigration laws many practice selective immigration

                     a)   South Africa demanded “pure” European descent

                     b)   New Zealand favored persons of British birth and parentage

                     c)   Brazil preferred people with a farming background

                     d)   Today South American countries place limits on the number of immigrants through quota systems

                10.     As the world’s population mushrooms, the volume of migrants will expand