Key Terms and Definitions:
Boundary - something that indicates bounds or limits.
Boundary Delimitation - political boundaries on Earth's surface are determined by the use of man-made structures such as fences and walls, i.e., United States/Mexico.
Boundary Demarcation - there are no physical signs on Earth's surface to show that a boundary exists, i.e., Saudi Arabia/Omen.
Boundary Dispute - when two or more states disagree about the demarcation of a political boundary.
Compact State - the distance from the geographic center of the area to any point on the boundary does not vary greatly, i.e., Hungary.
Elongated State - state that is geographically long and narrow, i.e., Chile.
Enclave - portion of a state that is totally surrounded by another state, i.e., Armenian Nagorno-Karabagh
Exclave -small portion of land that is separated from the main state, i.e., Kaliningrad/Russia.
Fragmented State - state split into many pieces, i.e., Philippines and Indonesia.
Landlocked State - state not having direct access to an ocean, i.e., Bolivia.
Perforated State - state that totally surrounds another state, i.e., Lesotho/South Africa.
Prorupt State - state having a portion of territory that is elongated, i.e., Thailand.
Microstate - state that is extremely small, i.e., San Marine.
Nation-State - political unit comprising a clearly delineated territory where the population shares a common history and culture, i.e., Japan.
Subsoil - below the surface of Earth. Boundaries are vertical planes, not merely lines on a map.
Frontier - zone where no state exercises political control, i.e., Antarctica and portions of Saudi Arabia.
Physical Boundary - major physical features such as deserts, mountain ranges, and/or water bodies that serve as a means of separation, i.e., Great Lakes, Pureness Mountains, and Sahara Desert.
Geometric Boundary - straight lines that serve as political boundaries that are unrelated to physical and /or cultural differences, i.e., United States/Canadian border.
Cultural Political Boundary - political boundary that separates different cultures, i.e., former Yugoslavia.
Religious Boundary - boundary that separates different religions, i.e., Northern Ireland/Ireland.
Language Boundary - boundary that separates different language speakers, i.e., traditionally many countries in Europe such as England, France, Spain, and Portugal.
Genetic Boundary - how boundaries evolve over time.
Antecedent Boundary - boundary that was created before the present day cultural landscape developed, i.e., Malaysia/Indonesia on the island of Borneo.
Subsequent Boundary - boundaries that are created as a result of long-term processes, i.e., Vietnam/China.
Super Imposed Boundary - boundary that has been forced upon the inhabitants of an area to solve a problem and/or conflict, i.e., Indonesia/Papua New Guinea.
Relict Boundary - boundary that ceases to exist, however the imprint of the boundary still remains on the cultural landscape, i.e., North/South Vietnam.
Fortified Boundary - when a state constructs physical barriers along a boundary to either keep people in or out of its territory, i.e., Great Wall of China, Berlin Wall, earth berms along the Morocco/Spanish Sahara border.
Nation - geographic area that is dominated by a large population that shares a common history and culture, i.e., Kurds and Palestinians.
State - political entity that maintains status as an independent country.